Appearance Anxiety Inventory (AAI)

The Appearance Anxiety Inventory (AAI) is a 10 question self-report scale that measures the cognitive and behavioural aspects of body image anxiety in general, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in particular.  This scale is useful in a cosmetic context as part of a screening procedure for BDD. The questionnaire is also sensitive to change through treatment, so is a useful way to track how your patients’ body image may change over a cosmetic treatment journey.


Veale, D., Eshkevaria, E., Kanakama, N., Ellisona, N., Costa, A., and Werner, T. (2014). The Appearance Anxiety Inventory: Validation of a Process Measure in the Treatment of Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42, 605-616. 


Gumpert, M., Rautio, D., Monzani, B., Jassi, A., Krebs, G., Fernández de la Cruz, L., Mataix-Cols, D., & Jansson-Fröjmark, M. (2024). Psychometric evaluation of the appearance anxiety inventory in adolescents with body dysmorphic disorder. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 1–13.

Hanley, S. M., Bhullar, N., & Wootton, B. M. (2020). Development and initial validation of the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Scale for Youth. The Clinical Psychologist, 24(3), 254–266.

Jacobson, N. S., & Truax, P. (1991). Clinical significance : A statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(1), 12–19.

Mastro, S., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Webb, H. J., Farrell, L., & Waters, A. (2016). Young adolescents’ appearance anxiety and body dysmorphic symptoms: Social problems, self-perceptions and comorbidities. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 8, 50–55.

Roberts, C. L. (2019). Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Adolescents: A New Multidimensional Measure and Associations with Social Risk, Mindfulness, and Self-Compassion [PhD Thesis, Griffith University]. Griffith University Research Repository. 

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Example AAI Report